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September 20, 2016

improvised

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 12:30 pm

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September 15, 2016

The Hymns of Furious Souls

Filed under: music,politics — ABRAXAS @ 10:28 pm

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August 24, 2016

Huey P Orleyn on sound and music

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 12:50 pm

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August 20, 2016

KWANELE SOSIBO on Bheki Mseleku

Filed under: Jonathan Eato,music,music and exile symposium — ABRAXAS @ 1:08 pm

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August 19, 2016

Promethean and Posthuman Freedom: Brassier on Improvisation and Time

Filed under: music,philosophy — ABRAXAS @ 9:34 am

September 30, 2015, in Uncategorized, by enemyin1

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This is the full text of enemyindustry’s presentation at the improvisation panel at The Society of European Philosophy-Forum of European Philosophy joint conference in Dundee, 2015.
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1) Introduction: Improvisation and the Politics of Technology

Ray Brassier’s “Unfree Improvisation/Compulsive Freedom” (written for the 2013 collaboration with Basque noise artist Mattin at Glasgow’s Tramway) is a terse but insightful discussion of the notion of freedom in improvisation. It begins with a polemic against the voluntarist conception of freedom. The voluntarist understands free action as the uncaused expression of a “sovereign self”. Brassier rejects this supernaturalist understanding of freedom, arguing that we should view freedom not as the determination of an act from outside the causal order, but as the self-determination by action within the causal order.

According to Brassier, self-determination is reflexive and rule-governed. A self-determining system acts in conformity to rules but is capable of representing and modifying these rules with implications for its future behaviour. This is only possible if we make the rules explicit in language (Brassier 2013b: 105; Sellars 1954: 226).

Brassier’s proximate inspiration for this model of freedom is Wilfred Sellars’ account of language and meaning (1954.) Sellars analytic pragmatism buys into the Kantian claim that concepts are rules for unifying or linking claims to cognitive significance rather than representations of something outside thought – concepts are “cooks rather than hooks”.[1]

Sellars distinguishes a more or less automatic and unconscious rule following from a metalinguistic level with the logical resources for reflection and self-awareness. Indeed for Brassier’s Sellars, thought and intentional action emerge only with the metalinguistic capacity to make reasons explicit in “candid public speech” (Brassier 2013b: 105; Sellars 1954: 226-8).[2] Or as he puts it: “Autonomy understood as a self-determining act is the destitution of selfhood and the subjectivation of the rule. The ‘oneself’ that subjects itself to the rule is the anonymous agent of the act.”

For Brassier, an avowed naturalist, it is important that this capacity for agency is non-miraculous, and that a mere assemblage of pattern governed mechanisms can be “gripped by concepts” (Brassier 2011). As he continues:

The act …. remains faceless. But it can only be triggered under very specific circumstances. Acknowledgement of the rule generates the condition for deviating from or failing to act in accordance with the rule that constitutes subjectivity. This acknowledgement is triggered by the relevant recognitional mechanism; it requires no appeal to the awareness of a conscious self…. (Brassier 2013a)

Now, there are criticisms that one can make of this account. For example, Brassier struggles to articulate the relationship between linguistic rules or norms and the natural regularities and behaviours on which they depend. For this reason, I’ve argued that the normative functionalism associated with Sellars and, latterly, Robert Brandom bottoms out in Davidson-style claims about how idealized interpreters (privy to all the facts) might construe a given stretch of behaviour (Roden 2015).

Brassier’s position thus depends on the conception of an interpreting subject it is not in a position to satisfactorily explain. Despite pretensions to naturalistic virtue, his world is bifurcated between a natural real and an order of thought that depends on it without really belonging to it (Brassier 2013: 104).

These issues lurk in the background in Brassier’s short text on improvisation. This claims that the act of improvisation involves an encounter between rule governed reason and pattern governed mechanisms. However, Brassier does not specify how such rules operate in music, or how the encounter between rules and mechanism is mediated.

In what follows I will argue that one reason he does not do this is that such rules do not operate in improvisation or in contemporary compositional practice. Claims about what is permissible or implied in music index context sensitive perceptual responses to musical events. These exhibit tensions between the expectations sedimented in musical culture and actual musical events or acts.

However, I will argue that this perceptual account of musical succession provides an alternate way of expressing Brassier’s remarks on the relationship between music and history in “Unfree Improvisation” – one that eschews normative discourse in favour of a descriptive account of the processes, capacities and potentialities operating in the improvising situation.

This metaphysical adjustment is of interest outside musical aesthetics and ontology, however.

Brassier’s text suggests that the temporality of the improvising act is a model for understanding a wider relationship with time: in particular the remorseless temporality explored in his writings on Prometheanism, Accelerationist Marxism and Radical Enlightenment (See Brassier 2014). I hope to use this suggestion as a clue for refining an ethics that can address the radically open horizons of being I discuss in my book Posthuman Life (Roden 2014).

This paper can, then, be thought of as a staged encounter between Prometheanism and my own Speculative Posthumanism. Brassier’s Prometheanism, like Reza Negarestani’s “inhumanism”, proposes that all reasons and purposes are “artificial”: implicit or explicit moves within language games. (See Negarestani 2014b). Thus the Promethean rejects all quasi-theological limits on artificialisation and enjoins the wholesale “reengineering of ourselves and our world on a more rational basis” and (2014: 487).

Speculative Posthumanism (SP) does not propose any theological limits to artificialisation. Far from it! However, it holds that the space of possible agents is not bound (a priori) by conditions of human agency or society. Since we lack future-proof knowledge of possible agents this “anthropologically unbounded posthumanism” (AUP) allows that the results of techno-political interventions could be weird in ways that we are not in a position to imagine (Roden 2014: Ch.3-4; Roden 2015b).

The ethical predicament of the Speculative Posthumanist is thus more complex than the Promethean. Given AUP there need be no structure constitutive of all subjectivity or agency. Thus she cannot appeal to a theory of rational subjectivity to support an ethics of becoming posthuman. So what – for example – might autonomy or freedom involve from the purview of unbounded posthumanism? What counts as emancipatory as opposed to oppressive violence?

I will argue that the idea of freedom embedded in Brassier’s text on improvisation can be elucidated by comparing the obscure genesis of improvisation to the predicament of agents in rapidly changing technical systems. Thus Brassier’s treatment of improvisation retains its resonance on this posthumanist reading even if it militates against his wider ontological and political commitments.
2. Harmonic Structure and Succession

I will begin by making use of some analyses of performance practices in post-war jazz and Julian Johnson’s analysis of the disruption of the rhetoric of harmonic accompaniment in the work of Anton Webern to support this model of affective subjectivity in improvisation.

Novice jazz improvisers must internalize a large body of musical theory: e.g. they learn modal variations on the Ionian and harmonic minor scale or “rules” for chord substitution in cadences based on shared tritones. This learning enables musical performance by sculpting possibilities for action during improvisation. For example, ambiguous voicings involving tritones or fourths decouple chords from the root, allowing modulations into what otherwise distant keys to slide easily over a tonal center.

This harmonic know-how consists recipes for honing expectations and sensations, not the acknowledgement of norms. The statement that a tritone (augmented fourth) belonging to a dominant seventh chord should resolve to a tonic reflects listener expectations in diatonic environments where a tonal center is defined in practice. This is not an intrinsic feature of the tritone, though, since each tritone occurs in two dominant chords. For example, the B-F tritone occurs in both G7 (resolving to C) and Dflat7.
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This provides a recipe for substituting a dominant chord at a tritone remove in perfect cadences.
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However, it also allows harmonic series to modulate into unrelated keys.
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As jazz theorist Martin Rosenberg notes, the use of augmented dominants with two tritones by Bebop players such as Charlie Parker and Thelonius Monk produce multiple lines of harmonic consequence and thus an ambiguous context that is not conventionally diatonic, even if (in contrast to free jazz) some adherence to a tonal center is preserved.
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Symmetrical chords built of fourths (as used by pianists such as McCoy Tyer and Bill Evans) or major thirds have a similar effect, whether in diatonic contexts (where they can render the tonic ambiguous by stripping it to the 3rd, sixth and ninth) or in modal contexts where a tonal center is still implied by a pedal pass.
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In consequence, the home key in the modal jazz developed by Miles Davis and Coltrane never prescribes a series of actions but furnishes expectations that can make an improvisation aesthetically intelligible after the fact. As Rosenberg explains, when Coltrane improvises in modal compositions such as “A Love Supreme” he deploys pentatonic or digital patterns modulated well away from the implied tonal center suggested by a bass line or by the “head” (the tune that traditionally opens or closes a jazz improvisation):
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During his solos, Coltrane performs constant modulations through a series of harmonic targets or, what avant-garde architects Arakawa and Gins would call tentative “landing sites” (2002: 10) that become deployed sonically over a simple harmonic ‘home’ through the use of centered and then increasingly distant pentatonic scales from that home. In doing so, Coltrane seeks to widen what I call “the bandwidth” of melodic, harmonic and rhythmic relationships possible. He does so as he maintains the coherence of the melodic line (or narrative) through the aurally comfortable shapes (from the perspective of the audience especially) enabled by those very pentatonic scales, despite the juxtaposition of distant and dissonant tonal centers implied by this method. (Rosenberg 2010: 211-12).

This differential/transformative structure is, not surprisingly, characteristic of scored Western art music. In his analysis of Anton Webern’s Three Little Pieces for Piano and Cello, Op 11, Julian Johnson argues that the opening two bars of the first piece allude to the framing and introduction of melody in traditional song and opera. For example, in baroque recitative the onset of a lyrical melody is frequently indicated by an arpeggiated chord. However, the high register chord that occurs in the first bar of the piece follows a single muted cello note and is followed, in turn, by a descending piano passage, bathetically marking the absence of the expressive melody portended by the chord (Johnson 1998: 277, 272.).

Culturally transmitted musical structures consist of exquisitely context-sensitive patterns of expectation– like the chord/recitative framing relation discussed by Johnson. These exist in tension with the musical act and are transformed in exemplary works.[3] Their linguistic formulations do not prescribe but indirectly describe how musical transitions are perceived and felt. Thus in the context of improvisation and composition, we are not free in virtue of acknowledging or declining musical norms since these are not in place.

Brassier’s conception of autonomy seems ill adapted to musical contexts, then, even we if buy into his naturalist dismissal of the sovereign self. Thus if we are to tease out the implications of his text for posthuman agency, we need to formulate an alternative account of autonomy in improvisational contexts that is not predicated on the acknowledgement of musical norms.
3. The Time of Improvisation

An improvisation takes place in a time window limited by the memory and attention of the improviser, responding to her own playing, to the other players, or (as Brassier recognises) to the real-time behaviour of machines such as audio processors or midi-filters. It thus consists of irreversible acts that cannot be compositionally refined. They can only be repeated, developed or overwritten by subsequent acts.

Improvisation is thus committed to what Andy Hamilton calls “an aesthetics of imperfection” as opposed to a Platonism for which the musical work is only contingently associated with performances or performers (Hamilton 2000: 172). The aesthetics of imperfection celebrates the genesis of a performance and the embodying of the performer in a specific time and space.[4]

If improvisation is a genesis, it implies an irreversible temporality. Composition or digital editing is always reversible. One develops notational variants of an idea before winnowing them down or rejecting them. One hits Ctl/Cmd + Z in the DAW (Digital Audio Workstation) when a mix goes bad.

An improvisation, by contrast, is always a unique and irreversible event on the cusp of another. An omniscient being would be incapable of improvising because its options would be fully known in advance. Unlike the improviser, it could never surprise itself. Its act would be fully represented before it took place and thus reversible.

It follows that an improvisation must exceed the improviser’s power of representation. The improvising agent must work with things or processes that it cannot entirely control or fully know. Paraphrasing Amy Ireland’s discussion of H P Lovecraft and Michel Serres in her excellent paper “Noise: An Ontology of the Avant-garde” improvisation requires a “para-site” – an alien interloper capable of disrupting or perverting the prescribed order of events. In Serres’ retelling of La Fontaine’s tale of the country rat and the city rat, this might be the Master who interrupts the rats’ nocturnal feast and sends the country rat scurrying home. Yet from the human position, it is the rodent feast that interrupts the Master’s sleep. The take home moral of this – for Ireland – is that the context in which a disturbance counts as noise requires a subjectively imposed norm that distorts the radical otherness of an inhuman reality to make it comprehensible for a human subject (Ireland 2014; Roden Forthcoming).[5]

With improvising subjectivity, however, parasitism is the rule – the noise that actualizes an always-tentative decision in real time performance.[6] This sensitive, yet tenuous agency implies a complex disunified subject in the dark about its complexity. As the tagline to Scott Bakker’s ultra-dark near-future thriller Neuropath has it: we are not what we think we are (2010, 2014).

Brassier veers towards such a model at the end of his article. It is, in any case, implied by his naturalistic proposal for explaining the evolution of reasons in terms of the organization of pattern governed physical systems. The freedom of improvisation requires, as he puts it, “an involution of [or reciprocal interaction between] mechanisms” to compose the (“not necessarily human”) agent of the act.

The ideal of ‘free improvisation’ is paradoxical: in order for improvisation to be free in the requisite sense, it must be a self-determining act, but this requires the involution of a series of mechanisms. It is this involutive process that is the agent of the act—one that is not necessarily human. It should not be confused for the improviser’s self, which is rather the greatest obstacle to the emergence of the act. The improviser must be prepared to act as an agent—in the sense in which one acts as a covert operative—on behalf of whatever mechanisms are capable of effecting the acceleration or confrontation required for releasing the act (My emphasis)

The claim that there is a potential act needing to be “released” in a given music setting might appear to impute rule-like structure or normativity to the improvising situation: something that ought to be. However, this claim does not cohere well with context sensitivity and underdetermination of musical expectation described in the previous section.

So what, then, is the nature of the paradoxically compelling, selfless freedom that falls out of this interaction between pattern recognizers, pattern generators and effectors? If we exorcise the specters of transcendental thought –Brassier’s own normative functionalism included – how, if at all, do we conceptualise he calls “the subjectivity of the act” or its “self-determination”?

I think clues about this selfless self-determination can be gleaned from improvising situations we know about. The real of the improvising situation might be all protean complexity, but as with other aspects of the world, we have techniques for coping with that complexity. And these work (more or less).

For example, in a field study of post-hardcore rock musicians, Alec McGuiness provides a vivid example of musicians using a procedural learning technique to prime a series of musical riffs over which their intentional control is fairly limited. Songs are built by associating riffs with riffs, but, as one informant explains, are varied in performance when it “feels right” to do so:

[S]ometimes there’ll be moments when we’re not looking at each other but all four will either hit that heavy thing, or really bring it down […] And yeah, those moments […].. it’s priceless, when everyone just hits the same thing at the same time. […] That’s when you know that that song’s definitely going to work. ‘Cause it’s obviously sort of pressing the same buttons on each of us at the same time. (McGuiness 2009: 19)

So, here, releasing the act involves a distributed response to a “felicitous performance”. This is a collective judgement expressed though performance act itself rather than by application of formal musical rules (of which the performers are largely innocent in any case).

The phenomenology of this act is also dark. All experience is, I have argued elsewhere, striated with “darkness” (Roden 2013; Roden 2014 Ch. 4). Having it only affords a very partial insight into its nature. We are not normally aware of it because, as Bakker writes, consciousness “provides no information about the absence of information.” Experience seems like a gift because we are unmindful of the heavy lifting required to produce it. We are in the dark about the dark.

The “state of grace” felt in felicitous improvisation is, then, an artifact of our technical underdevelopment. A technics like chaining riffs enables a groove but not groove control. It allows us, in Brassier words, to do “something with time” even as time “does something with us” (2014: 469).

However, if this is self-determination but not rule-governed rationality, what is it? I think we can understand this better by utilizing a conception of autonomy that is not exclusive to discursive creatures (as is the case with Kantian or Sellarsian self-determination).

In Posthuman Life, I call this “functional autonomy”. This idea helps articulate an unbounded speculative posthumanism because it applies to any self-maintaining system capable of enlisting values for its functionings or of becoming a value for some wider assemblage. A functionally autonomous system might be discursive and social; it might be a superintelligent but asocial singleton that only wants to produce paperclips. It might be something whose existence is utterly inconceivable to us, like a computational megastructure leeching the energy output of an entire star.

A diminution of functional autonomy is a reduction in power. Arthritis of the limbs painfully reduces freedom of movement and thus the ability to cultivate agency in other ways. Acquiring new skills increases “one’s capacities to affect and be affected, or to put it differently, increase one’s capacities to enter into novel assemblages” (DeLanda 2006: 50).

To be sure, success at improvising is not like acquiring a new skill. However, it requires that the agent embraces and is embraced a reality and time that interrupts any settled structure of values and ends.

This embrace might seem atavistic, divorced from the Promethean prospectus for engineering nature in compliance to reason. But this assumes that the means for engineering nature are compliant. In Posthuman Life I argue, to the contrary, that the systemic complexity of modern technique precludes binding technologies to norms. Modern self-augmenting technical systems are so complex as to be both out of control and characterised by massive functional indeterminacy – rendering them independent of any rules of use.

As the world is re-made by this vast planetary substance any agent located in the system needs to maximize its own ability to acquire new ends and purposes or bet (against the odds) on stable environments or ontological quiescence. Any technology liable to increase our ability to accrue new values and couplings in anomalous environments, then, is of local ecological value (Roden 2014: Ch. 7).[7] This is not because such technologies make us better or happier, but because the only viable response to this deracinative modernity is more of the same.

In this “posthuman predicament” agency must be febrile, even masochistic. The agent must tolerate and practice a systemic violence against itself and its world. Thus improvisation – because it necessarily embraces and is embraced by the involuted mechanisms of performance – rehearses our tryst with the ontological violence of the hypermodern.

References

Bakker, Scott. 2010. Neuropath. New York: Tor.

Bakker, Scott. 2014. The Blind Mechanic II: Reza Negarestani and the Labor of Ghosts | Three Pound Brain. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from https://rsbakker.wordpress.com/2014/04/13/the-blind-mechanic-ii-reza-negarestani-and-the-labour-of-ghosts

Beaty, R. E. (2015). The neuroscience of musical improvisation. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 51, 108-117

Brandom, R. 1994. Making it Explicit: Reasoning, representing, and discursive commitment. Harvard university press.

Brandom, R. 2001. Articulating Reasons: An Introduction to Inferentialism. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Brassier, Ray & Rychter, Marcin (2011).” I Am a Nihilist Because I Still Believe in Truth”. Kronos (March). http://www.kronos.org.pl/index.php?23151,896 (Accessed 9 May 2015).

Brassier, R. 2011b. “The View from Nowhere”. Identities: Journal for Politics,

Gender and Culture 17: 7–23.

Brassier, Ray 2013a. “Unfree Improvisation/Compulsive Freedom”, http://www.mattin.org/essays/unfree_improvisation-compulsive_freedom.htm (Accessed March 2015)

Brassier, Ray. 2013b. “Nominalism, Naturalism, and Materialism: Sellars’ Critical Ontology”. In Bana Bashour & Hans D. Muller (eds.), Contemporary Philosophical Naturalism and its Implications. Routledge. 101-114.

Brassier, Ray (2014). “Prometheanism and its Critics”. In R. Mackaey and Avenessian (eds.) #Accelerate: the Accelerationist Reader (Falmouth: Urbanomic), 467-488.

Budd, M. (2001). The Pure Judgement of Taste as an Aesthetic Reflective Judgement. The British Journal of Aesthetics, 41(3), 247-260.

Hickey-Moody, A. 2009. “Little War Machines: Posthuman Pedagogy and Its Media”. Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies 3(3): 273–80.

Huron, D. B. 2006. Sweet anticipation: Music and the psychology of expectation. (MIT press).

Ireland, Amy. 2014. “Noise: An Ontology of the Avant-garde” https://www.academia.edu/3690573/Noise_An_Ontology_of_the_Avant-Garde (retrieved 30th April 2015)

Johnson, Julian, 1998. “The Nature of Abstraction: Analysis and the Webern Myth”, Music Analysis, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 267-280.

Limb, C. J., & Braun, A. R. (2008). Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: An fMRI study of jazz improvisation. PLoS One, 3(2), e1679.

McGuiness, A. 2009. Mental and motor representation for music performance (Doctoral dissertation, The Open University).

Proulx, Jeremy (forthcoming). “Nature, Judgment and Art: Kant and the Problem of Genius”. Kant Studies Online.

Roden, David 2013. “Nature’s Dark Domain: An Argument for a Naturalised Phenomenology”. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplements 72: 169–88.

Roden, David. 2014. Posthuman Life: Philosophy at the Edge of the Human. London: Routledge.

Roden Forthcoming. “On Reason and Spectral Machines: an anti-normativist response to bounded posthumanism” Forthcoming in Rosi Braidotti Rick Dolphijn (ed.), Philosophy After Nature.

Rosenberg, Martin E. 2010. “Jazz and Emergence (Part One).” Inflexions 4, “Transversal Fields of Experience”: 183-277. www.inflexions.org

Shaviro, Steven. 2015. Allie X, “Catch”. http://www.shaviro.com/Blog/?p=1287 (accessed 6 May 2015)

[1] These determine how one ought to move from one position in the game to another (language-transition rules), assumes an “initial position” in the game – say, by observing some state of the world (language-entry rules) or exits the game by intentionally altering a bit of the world (Sellars 1954, 1974). In the case of assertions, the language-transition rules correspond to principles of material inference such as that allowing us to move to x is coloured from x is red. Language-entry rules, on the other hand, are non-inferential since they are made on the basis of reliable dispositions to discriminate the world (Sellars 1954: 209-10). As Robert Brandom puts it, statements like “This is red” (uttered in response to red things) are “noninferentially elicited but inferentially articulated” (Brandom 1994: 235, 258).

[2] For example, Robert Brandom cites the conditional (if… then…_statement as “the paradigm of a locution that permits one to make inferential commitments explicit as the content of judgements” (Brandom 29914: 109)

[3] Compositional prescriptions are regularly honored in the breach: “For hundreds of years musicians have been taught that it is good to resolve a large leap with a step in the other direction. Surely at least some composers followed this advice? The statistical results from von Hippel and Huron imply that for each passage where a composer had intentionally written according to post-skip reversal, then they must have intentionally transgressed this principle in an equivalent number of passages. Otherwise the statistics would not work out.” (David Huron, Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation, p. 84-6). However, the post-skip reversal heuristic is, it seems, applied by musician listeners, which makes sense given that it is easier to apply than a more accurate regression to the mean heuristic – which would require the listener to constantly infer the range (tessitura) of the melody (Ibid.).

[4] “Improvisation makes the performer alive in the moment; it brings one to a state of alertness, even what Ian Carr in his biography of Keith Jarrett has called the ‘state of grace’. This state is enhanced in a group situation of interactive empathy. But all players, except those in a large orchestra, have choices inviting spontaneity at the point of performance. These begin with the room in which they are playing, its humidity and temperature, who they are playing with, and so on.” (183)

[5] As she writes: “Looking from the inside out, the transcendental conditioning of experience establishes clarity by admitting certain contents of an unknowable site of primary production; yet from the outside in, the transcendental conditioning of experience is itself a degenerative noise that degrades the clarity of its external input, rendering it unintelligible and ultimately inaccessible to internal modes of apprehension. What, for the observer-as-subject is clarity, for the observer-as-object is noise. As Niklaus Luhman once remarked: ‘Reality is what one does not perceive when one perceives it’ “ (Ireland 2014)

[6] For example, while improvising in the first eight bars of Miles Davis’ “So What” I might decide (more or less consciously) to play some digital patterns in the home key then transpose these up a minor third. I might have a conception of how I’ll land in the home key of Dm: say by transposing down a tone to Eflatm, resolving to Dm with in a semi-tone descent. This will leave much to be resolved on the fly as my body engages the keys. What patterns will I employ? Will they be varied melodically or rhythmically during the root movement from D to F to E flat? Will they employ chromatic elements (outside the related modes) that further muddy the sense of tonality; will I (at the last) refrain from taking that timid semi-tone resolution, instead repeating or varying the modulation into more harmonically ambiguous terrain?

[7] For example, space technology, nanotechnology, or the use of brain computer interfaces –

first published here: http://enemyindustry.net/blog/?p=5895

August 18, 2016

KAGISO MNISi on Zim Ngqawana

Filed under: 2005 - giant steps,2010 - the exhibition of vandalizim,music — ABRAXAS @ 11:22 pm

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first published here: http://musicinafrica.net/zim-ngqawana-music-spirit

MALOPOETS – Lengoma

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 12:51 pm

June 22, 2016

Stephanus Muller – Die stem

Filed under: music,music and exile symposium,stephanus muller — ABRAXAS @ 4:33 pm

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Musiek is hoog of laag. Dit kan styg of daal (soos berge en dale) met ’n opgaande lopie of ’n afwaartse toonleer. Dit is hier, digby die huis (tonika), of dáár by verwantes (relatiewe of parallelle mineur/majeur, miskien dominante of subdominante toonsoorte). Soms beweeg dit, soos in Schönberg se beskouing van tonaliteit, na verafgeleë uithoeke van groter tonale geografieë, tot by die verste verwyderde omgewing voor dit (indien ooit) terugkeer na die bekende wêreld van die tonika. Musiek as ’n soort res extensa. Orkestrasie is lugtig en ruimtelik, soos by Webern, of konstruktivisties gespierd soos by Brahms. Musiek maak horisontale kontoere en boë deur die afstande tussen note (intervalle). Hierdie afstande word in uitvoering bepaal deur die tydsruimte tussen die einde van een toon en die begin van die volgende te beheer (artikulasie). Musiek is argitektonies monumentaal in vorm soos ’n Beethoven simfonie, of dit is in uitdrukking en vorm intiem soos die salon.
Ons kan musiek nie in taal benader sonder die metafoor van ruimte nie. Individuele kombinasies tone (musikale ‘werke’) is afgebakende ruimtes. Wanneer die ruimtes deur herhaalde betreding bekend geword het, word dit bevolk deur kulturele geheue. Die koesterende aard van sulke ruimtes setel daarin dat die sentiment (emosioneel en/of kultureel) presies gevoel word, maar nie presies in taal uitgedruk kan word nie. Dit is ’n taalweerstandige ruimte.
Om Die Stem as ’n kollektiewe herinnering te ondersoek, steun op hierdie metaforiese verstaan van musiek in die algemeen, en van ’n spesifieke werk in die besonder. Dit is nie ’n ondersoek wat veel te doen het met die geskiedenis van die lied nie. C.J. Langenhoven se vers is slegs die fondament van hierdie plek, M.L. de Villiers se melodie slegs die buitemure daarvan en Hubert du Plessis se amptelike orkestrasie die binneversiering. Die vraag na geheue en herinneringe en van hoe hierdie dinge hierdie teks betrek het, is by uitstek nie ’n vraag na die skryf van geskiedenis nie. Die verbeelding wat op soek is na geheue moet meer poëties te werk gaan.

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Figuur 1: David Goldblatt-foto met die beskrywing “Die Heldeakker, The Heroes’ Acre: cemetery for White members of the security forces killed in ‘The Total Onslaught’ Ventersdorp, Transvaal, 1 November 1986”.

Die slotfrase van Die Stem word heel letterlik ‘triomferend’ (die karakteraanduiding in die musiek) gespan as sin-gewende banier oor hierdie afgekampte ruimte. Dit skenk definisie aan die ruimte van die militêre begraafplaas. Hoor die kyker dit? Die twee gestorwenes in die begraafplaas word opgedra deur die kontoer van die melodie: B-mol-A-G-B-mol-D-E-mol. Die gepunteerde ritmiese aanhef van die frase, gerig deur die tussendominante harmonie besweer twyfel, stu vorentoe, mik na die oplossing aan die einde van die frase. Die einde is gerusstellend as einde. Dit maak sin. Dit besorg ons tuis.
Goldblatt se foto dateer uit 1986. Dit is verskoonbaar om Die Stem in hierdie tyd te hoor as ’n militêre lied; die kontoere en ritmes en harmonieë daarvan as skanse teen die vyand, as onderskraging vir dié wat oor die uiteindelike oorwinning sou twyfel. Vir André P. Brink is Die Stem egter ook die lied van marteling in die sewentigerjare:

… telkens word die belhamel van die betogers gearresteer, gemartel en doodgemaak: dan ontstaan nuwe protes, en daaruit kom nuwe martelaars. So hou dit aan tot daar ’n doodse stilte toesak waaruit Die Stem begin groei terwyl ’n groepie Volkspelers in spierwit maskers oor die lyke van die martelaars begin dans.

Dit is ook hierdie ‘Stem’ wat aan die einde van J.M. Coetzee se Age of iron die nagmerrie-visie van die hel van ’n klankbaan voorsien. “I am afraid”, sê die sterwende mevrou Curran, “of going to hell and having to listen to Die stem (sic) for all eternity”. Die Stem wat die kis van Milla Redelinghuys haar graf in begelei aan die einde van Marlene van Niekerk se Agaat, ’n ander teneur. Wanneer die plaas Grootmoedersdrift in besit geneem word deur die bruin vrou, Agaat, gevorm deur die wit vrou wat haar liefgehad en verwerp het, is dit Die Stem wat op ’n dubbelsinnige manier verandering en voortsetting artikuleer:

Gaat wat die mense by die graf die derde versie van Die Stem laat sing: … by die klink van huw’liksklokkies, by die kluitklap op die kis … Thys se liggaamstaal! Die skouers militaristies agtertoe, oë strak na bo, ou Beatrice starend na die einder. Die werkers, mans en vrouens, het dit gesing soos ’n hallelujalied, oë omgedop. Woordvas tot en met. Trust Agaat. Sy sal nie sommer gou die nuwe lied invoer nie.

Maar hoe het historiese resepsie gelei tot ’n stelselmatig-groeiende fascistiese timbre wat uitvoerings en resepsies van Die Stem in die tagtigerjare gekenmerk het en ook in bogenoemde voorbeelde uit die letterkunde opgeroep word? Daar was immers ’n tyd toe Die Stem ’n bevrydingslied was vir Afrikaners, ’n alternatiewe teks vir kollektiewe musikale mobilisasie as God Save The Queen. Hierdie essay wil die enkele aangehaalde voorbeelde van fiksienarratief-gemedieërde herinneringe aan Die Stem probeer koppel aan historiese proses, soos dit verteenwoordig word in argiefdokumente van die FAK uit die vyftigerjare.
In 1952, vyf jaar voor Die Stem die enigste amptelike volkslied van Suid-Afrika sou word, loods die Afrikaanse Kultuurraad van Pretoria ’n inisiatief om “drie gesaghebbendes se mening oor die gepaste geleenthede, wanneer ’n Volkslied behoort gesing of gespeel te word, te verneem”. Uit Stellenbosch skryf dr. C.G.S. (Con) de Villiers:

Ek is van geaardheid en opvoeding uiters konserwatief, veral wat die heilige dinge van ons volk betref. En Die Stem het een daarvan geword. Ek het dit selfs bitter betreur dat Die Stem aan die end van die voetbalwedstryde in Engeland gesing en gespeel is … Daar is vir my net een leidraad vir die sing: besit die vergadering poids et majesté in die Calvynse kriterium? Dan kan Die Stem gesing word!

De Villiers se antwoord kan slegs ten dele aangehaal word. In die res van die brief spreek hy hom ook uit teen die sing van Die Stem by politieke vergaderings aangesien hy as lid van die Nasionale Party dit sal “betreur indien die Sappe Die Stem as visitekaartjie van die [Nasionale] Party aanskou”. Die verskriklikste vergryp teen Die Stem bestempel hy as “’n juffroutjie [wat] aan die klavier gaan sit en haar eie, apokriewe harmonie (?) by die wysie maak”.
In 1952 het Die Stem vir De Villiers dus reeds een van die ‘heilige dinge’ van die Afrikaner geword, ’n plek van aanbidding. Sy afkeure dui op moontlike kontaminerende invloede: sport, politiek en ‘juffroutjies’. Wat laasgenoemde betref is die gevaar vir besmetting gesetel in die harmonie en nie enige van die ander parameters nie. Histories (’n mens dink aan Jean-Jacques Rousseau, die Konsilie van Trent) kan hierdie vrees gekoppel word aan ’n filosofiese en ideologiese verbintenis aan die woord, waarvan die helderheid deur meer komplekse vertikale musikale bedrywighede vertroebel word. Meer hieroor later.
Vir De Villiers is Die Stem as heilige ruimte ’n ruimte van goeie smaak en hoër dinge. Sy gepubliseerde geskrifte is deurspek met hierdie politieke en gender-vooroordele wat uiting vind as pseudo-estetiese oordele. Mussolini se ondertekende portret wat in sy sitkamer uitgestal was gekoppel met sy Verdi verering, die invloed van Engelse ‘songs’ wat soos ’n slegte reuk aan sy verlede bly kleef het, die herinnering van “hartstogtelike, barbaarse Sigeunervolksdanse wat die jong Jood vir die besadigde, burgerlike Afrikanerhuisgesin voorgespeel het”; koördinate van hoe ’n mens De Villiers se kamp ‘poids et majesté’ kan rekonstrueer. Die Stem as soete inval.
Doktor H.C.E. Bosman, destydse sekretaris van die Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns, skryf op 16 Junie 1952 dat Die Stem gesing kan word by “geleenthede waarin volksgevoel tot natuurlike uiting kom.” Dit sluit in “algemene Volksfeeste, Dingaansfeeste, Uniedag, Heldedag, Van Riebeeckdag, Parlementêre verrigtinge, funksies waarby die Staatshoof of regering betrokke is, funksies waarby die Provinsiale Administrasie of Stedelike Administrasie verbonde is”. Bosman dink nie dat Die Stem by groot politieke vergaderings ‘onvanpas’ is nie, en dink dat dit ook by “Kultuurbyeenkomste, Laertrekke, Volkspele, groot samekomste van die Jeug, Internasionale wedstryde of byeenkomste” gehoor kan word. Uitgesluit is “Bruilofte, Danspartye, Skemerpartye, Bioskope, Kampe, Toneelopvoerings, Konserte, Pieknieks”. Die rede wat hy hiervoor verskaf is dat dit ’n navolging sou wees van “die Engelse gebruik en dit is deels monargisties-tradisioneel, deels doelbewuste imperialistiese propaganda”. Die Stem is dus ’n anti-Britse ruimte, maar meer nog: dit beset ruimtes van die staat. In hierdie ontluikende diskoers is Die Stem as simbool nie meer ’n ruimte wat betrek word nie, dit is ’n ding met ’n plek.
Vir prof. A.N. Pelzer van die Universiteit van Pretoria is ’n Volkslied

… ’n verhewe uiting van die standhoudende aspirasies wat diep in die volksiel leef. Dit dui op die verlange dat volk en Staat sal voortbestaan en dit dien as ’n middel om die volk saam te snoer tot ’n hegte eenheid en hom also te sterk om die verhewe ideale wat vir volk en staat gekoester word, te verwesenlik. Dit styg uit bo die tydelike en dui op ewige en onverganklike waardes.

Die Stem is ’n metafisiese ruimte van aspirasie en idealisme. Daar kan slegs reg daaraan geskied word deur dit uit te voer by “byeenkomste waar die oogmerk van die byeenkoms nie tot homself beperk is nie maar die tendens inhou om waardes te wek wat ook vir die toekoms betekenis sal hê”, aldus Pelzer. Hy vrees ook dat Die Stem misbruik kan word, te wete deur Die Stem aan dieselfde “laagvloerse behandeling van die Engelse volkslied” te onderwerp. Die transendentale is nie ’n Engelse ruimte nie.
Die Afrikaanse Kultuurraad van Pretoria se intervensie oor hierdie belangrike saak het die FAK tot verdere ondersoek gedring. ’n Opinie is aangevra (en verkry) van die Suid-Afrikaanse Onderwysersunie (SAOU), wat die sing van die lied by skoolfunksies aanbeveel het “om by die jeug van ons land gesonde vaderlandsliefde in te skerp”. Na al hierdie beraadslaging word daar ’n besluit geneem tydens ’n vergadering van die Musiekkommissie van die FAK op 25 April 1953:

Die vergadering beveel by die FAK aan om dit onder die volk te propageer:
a) Dat ‘Die Stem’ alleen gesing word by geleenthede wat landsverteenwoordigende waarde het;
b) dat daarteen gewaak moet word dat ‘Die Stem’ nie in dieselfde gebruik as ‘The Queen’ beland nie;
c) dat waar ‘Die Stem’ wel gespeel word, dit in sy geheel en nie verbrokkel gedoen moet word nie;
d) dat by die afsluiting van byeenkomste ander liedere bv. Afrikaners Landgenote gesing word.

Dit is belangrik om te registreer wat hier besig was om te gebeur: die kontrole, die anti-Britse sentiment, die van-mense-verwyderde estetika van ’n museumstuk wat gepropageer is. Die gevoel dat Die Stem nie net ’n lied was nie, maar ’n mistieke sleutel tot die Afrikanervolk se selfstandigheid. Dit is dus nie verrassend nie, dat wanneer Die Stem in 1957 as enigste amptelike Volkslied van die Republiek aanvaar word, geen oortreffende trap genoegsaam is om die vreugde in die geledere van die lied se kurators in die FAK te beskryf nie. ’n Telegram van gelukwense word aan die eersteminister gestuur:

Aan: Sy Edele Die Eerste Minister, Die Volksraad, Kaapstad

Die verklaring van Die Stem van Suid-Afrika tot amptelike en enigste Volkslied van Suid-Afrika is vir elkeen van die duisende lede van die FAK ’n bron van die hoogste sielsverrukking. Daarmee is ’n lang gekoesterde volksideaal verwesenlik en een van die belangrikste bakens op ons weg na volwaardige nasieskap geplant. Daarmee verdwyn die laaste van die voormalige veroweraar se simbole wat vir meer as ’n halfeeu triomferend oor ons getroon het. Ons bring hulde aan U Edele persoonlik en aan elke lid van die Regering.

Van: Sekretaris FAK

Hoogste sielsverrukking! Een van die belangrikste bakens op ons weg na volwaardige nasieskap. Die Stem het die Afrikanerpartituur van nasieskap geword. Drie dae na die versending van hierdie telegram, skryf die voorsitter van die FAK, prof. H.B. Thom, ’n brief van gelukwensing aan J.G. Strydom waarin hy die belang van Die Stem as volg verwoord:

U het die Afrikanerdom, en inderdaad die ganse Suid-Afrika, ’n belangrik stap vorentoe gevoer op die pad van volle, ongekwalifiseerde geestelike selfstandigheid, wat so ’n onmisbare voor-vereiste vir ware ekonomiese en staatkundige selfstandigheid uitmaak. Ek voel oortuig daarvan dat die Geskiedenis nog eendag die enorme betekenis van u leiding in verband met ons volkslied op treffende wyse en in sy volle omvang sal laat sien.

Volle, ongekwalifiseerde geestelike selfstandigheid. Dit is een formulering van wat die betekenis van hierdie lied was in die ore van die Afrikaners van daardie tyd. Maar selfs nadat Die Stem as enigste amptelike Volkslied van die Republiek aanvaar is, het die beheersug daaroor in die geledere van Afrikanerleiers nie verdwyn nie. Geestelike selfstandigheid is, helaas, nie ’n waarborg vir goeie smaak nie. En nie net moes die melodie volksbesit wees en bly nie, maar ook daardie verkankerende korrupsie waarteen doktor Con de Villiers gewaarsku het, afwykende harmonie, moes as volksvreemd uit Die Stem verwyder word. ’n FAK Musiekkommissie-notule van 12 Maart 1960 dokumenteer die volgende bespreking:

Mnr. A. Hartman rapporteer dat die SAUK ’n plaat van Gideon Fagan se verwerking van Die Stem van Suid-Afrika op die mark wou bring met die versoek dat die Regering goedkeuring daaraan gee as die aanvaarde amptelike verwerking. Die Musiekkommissie se beskouing is dat die verwerking nie aanvaarbaar is nie, veral daar dit die harmonie ingrypend verander, en gee voorkeur aan die verwerking van ds. M.L. de Villiers.
Mnr. A. Hartman meld ook dat dr. F.C.L. Bosman, voorsitter van die S.A. Musiekraad, prof. [Friedrich] Hartman (sic) van die Universiteit van die Witwatersrand, se mening oor die saak ingewin het. Laasgenoemde se mening, wat in Engels opgestel is, word aan die Kommissie voorgelees. Daaruit blyk dit dat hy ds. M.L. de Villiers se verwerking op tegniese punte aanval.
Mnr. A. Hartman se mening is dat die stempel geplaas moet word op wat in ons volkstradisie pas en nie juis op die beste tegniese toonsettings nie.
Dr. G.G. Cillíe wys daarop dat prof. Hartman (sic) die verwerking van Gideon Fagan so in die superlatief aanprys en dié van ds. M.L. de Villiers so radikaal verdoem, dat ons beslis kan sê dat dit nie ’n objektiewe en wetenskaplike mening is nie en dat dit daarom geheel-en-al verwerp kan word.

Op 14 Maart 1960 word ’n brief namens die FAK se Musiekkommissie aan prof. H.B. Thom geskryf, vermoedelik deur die FAK se sekretaris. In hierdie brief word ’n ‘dringende saak’ geopper, naamlik die beplande plaatopname van Die Stem deur die SAUK. Die bron van ongelukkigheid is die Fagan ‘vierstemmige verwerking’ wat deur prof. Friedrich Hartmann aangeprys is:

Ons het ook die (Engelse) kommentaar van prof. Hartman (sic) voor ons gehad. Die inhoud daarvan is kortliks dat die M.L. de Villiers-verwerking hopeloos is en die Fagan-verwerking foutloos is. Die Musiekkommissie is van mening dat so ’n absolute verdoeming van die een en absolute ophemeling van die ander nie as ’n wetenskaplik-objektiewe beoordeling aanvaar kan word nie.

En dan volg die doodsteek:

Die Fagan-verwerking se tempo van 60 kwartnote per minuut is onaanvaarbaar stadig en is blykbaar ’n nabootsing van God Save the Queen se tempo.

Die Stem word verengels deurdat dit meer soos ’n himne en minder soos ’n mars gespeel word. Maar die antagonisme teenoor alles wat Engels is, van die karakter van die Engelse nasionale lied tot die voortdurende beklemtoning van die negatiewe kommentaar as ‘in Engels’ maak dit duidelik dat die motiewe hier sterk geanker is in nasionalistiese diskoerse. Dat daar ’n onderliggende wantroue is teenoor ‘die beste tegniese toonsettings’ is duidelik, en dat hierdie wantroue geleë kan wees in die (onbewuste) bevestiging van die Afrikaanse woord as potensieel kwesbaar vir ‘volksvreemde’ harmonie, is ’n ryk gedagte. Die kleinlike Afrikanerpolitiek wat agter hierdie polemiek woed word puntsgewys deur die briefskrywer aan Thom verduidelik. Kortliks is dit ’n “set” deur die “volkvyande van die Afrikaner” om Gideon Fagan as hoofdirigent van die SAUK aangestel te kry, eerder as die voorsitter van die Musiekkommissie van die FAK, Anton Hartman. Of Friedrich Hartmann se opinie musikaal verantwoord is, is nie ter sake nie:

Die opinies wat deur hulle ingewin is, is slegs van mense wat hoegenaamd nie in ons Afrikaanse volkslewe staan nie. As volksliedere en harmoniesering [sic] daarvan, suiwer op musikale perfektheid beoordeel moet word, sou Die Stem in die eerste plek nooit aanvaar gewees het nie.

’n Brief met ’n appèl dat die M.L. de Villiers-toonsetting deur die regering as amptelike toonsetting erken word, is vervolgens ook deur die FAK aan dr. H.F. Verwoerd gestuur.

III

Wat sou ’n mens kon aflei uit hierdie erbarmlike politiek oor harmonisering, oor geskiktheid van plek en geleentheid, oor waardigheid en gewigtigheid? Beslis dat daar niks neutraal aan hierdie lied is nie, en dat hierdie politieke lading wat aan Die Stem kleef nie slegs van ons tyd is en deur die ‘vyande van die Afrikaner’ terugskouend versin word nie, maar histories deur Afrikaners aangevoor en verstaan is. Ook dat die soort verstikkende beheer wat die Afrikaner se Republiek sou kenmerk ook hierdie lied in selfverheerlikende middelmatigheid sou knel. Laastens dat ook musiek nie die konkelary van die Broeders kon vryspring nie.
Die Stem as Afrikaanse herinneringsplek: Goldblatt se tragiese leegheid, Brink se martelaarsdirge, Van Niekerk se beseëlende kluitklap op die kis van die Republiek, Coetzee se weergawe van die hel, Con de Villiers se ‘poids et majesté’, Anton Hartman se volkstradisie, H.B. Thom se ‘geestelike selfstandigheid’. Verskillende herinneringe in konflik met mekaar, sprekend van verskillende geskiedenisse.

Bronne

Ongepubliseer

PV 202 1/2/1/4/2/2/1, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
PV 202 1/2/3/4/2/2/1, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
PV 202 1/2/3/4/2/2/3, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
PV 202 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.

Gepubliseer

Brink, A.P. Kennis van die aand. Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau [1973] 1983.
Coetzee, J.M. Age of iron. Londen: Penguin 1990.
Die sneeu van anderjare. Kaapstad: Tafelberg 1976.
Goldblatt, D. South Africa: the structure of things then. Kaapstad: Oxford University Press 1998.
Hyer, B. “Tonality”, in: T. Christiensen (red.). The Cambridge history of Western music theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2002, 726-752.
Lüdemann, W. “‘Uit die diepte van ons see’: an archetypal interpretation of selected examples of Afrikaans patriotic music”, in: SAMUS 23, 2003, 13-42.
Muller, S. “Exploring the aesthetics of reconciliation: rugby and the South African national anthem”, in: SAMUS 21, 2001, 19-38.
Soete inval: nagelate geskrifte van Con de Villiers. Kaapstad: Tafelberg 1979.
Van Niekerk, M. Agaat. Kaapstad: Tafelberg 2004.

Vergelyk die bespreking van die retoriek van tonaliteit in Brian Hyer se “Tonality”, in: T. Christiensen (red.), The Cambridge history of Western music theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 726-752, veral p. 733.
Hierdie essay handel nie oor die geskiedenis of ideologiese konteks en betekenis van ‘Die Stem’ nie. Meer kan oor hierdie aspekte gelees word in S. Muller, “Exploring the aesthetics of reconciliation: rugby and the South African national anthem”, in: SAMUS 21, 2001, 19-38; Vergelyk ook W. Lüdemann se “Uit die diepte van ons see: an archetypal interpretation of selected examples of Afrikaans patriotic music”, in: SAMUS 23, 2003, 13-42.
D. Goldblatt, South Africa: the structure of things then (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1998), 154 en 243.
A.P. Brink, Kennis van die aand (Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau, [1973] 1983), 314.
J.M. Coetzee, Age of iron (Londen: Penguin, 1990), 181.
M. van Niekerk. Agaat (Kaapstad: Tafelberg, 2004), 701.
Vergelyk lêer PV 202 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Vergelyk lêer PV 202 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Vergelyk Soete inval: nagelate geskrifte van Con de Villiers (Kaapstad: Tafelberg, 1979), 26-27 en 50-51. Vergelyk ook Die sneeu van anderjare (Kaapstad: Tafelberg, 1976), 72.
Lêer PV 202 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Lêer PV 202 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Lêer PV 202 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Lêer PV 202 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Vergelyk brief van 14 Februarie 1953, PV 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Vergelyk notule van die vergadering van die Musiekkommissie, 25 April 1953, PV 202 1/2/3/4/2/2/1, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein. Vergelyk ook Bylae A by die agenda van die Musiekkommissievergadering van 6 Julie 1954, getiteld “Verslag van die FAK-kommissie insake ‘Die Stem’ soos gewysig deur die Afrikaanse Nasionale Kultuurraad”, PV 202 1/2/1/4/2/2/1, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Sien telegram van 3 Mei 1957, PV 202 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Brief van H.B. Thom aan J.G. Strydom, 6 Mei 1957, PV 202 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Notule van ’n vergadering van die FAK Musiekkommissie, 12 Maart 1960, PV 202 1/2/3/4/2/2/3, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Lêer PV 202 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Brief aan H.B. Thom, 14 Maart 1960; Lêer PV 202 2/4/1/3/1/4, INEG, Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein.
Die brief is gedateer 21 Maart 1960. Ontvangs is deur die eersteminister se kantoor erken op 28 Maart 1960 en ’n volledige antwoord is op 25 Mei 1960 deur die sekretaris van die eersteminister aan die FAK gestuur. Hierin het die regering wyslik besluit om “onsydig” te staan ten opsigte van “alle harmoniserings of verwerkings van die komposisie vir orkes of stemme of wat ook al”, met dien verstande dat sodanige verwerkings “binne die raamwerk van die erkende komposisie bly en met waardigheid en toewyding en by gepaste geleenthede uitgevoer word”.

June 17, 2016

RANGOATE HLASANE on Popular Music in South Africa

Filed under: 2003 - sharp sharp! (the kwaito story),music — ABRAXAS @ 9:07 am

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first published here: http://musicinafrica.net/mapping/overview-texts?page=30

May 17, 2016

THE ROOM

Filed under: kaganof,music — ABRAXAS @ 9:36 am

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April 26, 2016

RAW TERRITORIES festival

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 4:52 pm

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March 23, 2016

Revival – Ndingene’Nam

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 4:08 pm

Jerusalema E Ncha – Jo’Khalefo Ea Molimo

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 3:46 pm

Barorisi Ba Morena – He’s My Lord

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 3:42 pm

LOUIS-FERDINAND CéLINE on The Song

Filed under: literature,music — ABRAXAS @ 3:41 pm

One night, I don’t know why, they changed our number. The scene of the new sketch was the London Embankment. My misgivings were immediate, our little English girls were expected to sing, off key and ostensibly on the banks of the Thames at night, while I played the part of a policeman. A totally silent role, walking up and down in front of the parapet. Suddenly, when I’d stopped thinking about it, their singing grew louder than life itself and steered fate in the direction of calamity. While they were singing, I couldn’t think of anything but all the poor world’s misery and my own, those tarts with their singing made my heart burn like tuna fish. I thought I’d digested it, forgotten the worst! But this was the worst of all, a song that couldn’t make it … And as they sang, they wiggle-waggled, to try and bring it off. A fine mess, all of a sudden we were knee deep in misery … No mistake! Mooning about in the fog! Their lament was dripping with misery, it made me grow older from minute to minute. Panic oozed from the very stage set. And nothing could stop them. They didn’t seem to understand all the harm their song was doing us all … They laughed and flung out their legs in perfect time, while lamenting their entire life … When it comes to you from so far, with such sureness of aim, you can’t mistake it and you can’t resist.

Misery was everywhere, in spite of the luxurious hall; it was on us, on the set, it overflowed, it drenched the whole earth. Those girls were real artists … Abject misery poured out of them, and they made no attempt to stop it or even understand it. Only their eyes were sad. The eyes aren’t enough. They sang the calamity of existence, and they didn’t understand. They mistook it for love, nothing but love, the poor little things had never been taught anything else. Supposedly, they were singing about some little setback in love. That’s what they thought! When you’re young and you don’t know, you mistake everything for love trouble …

Where go … where I look …
It’s only for you … ou …
Only for you … ou …

That’s what they sang.

It’s a mania with the young to put all humanity into one ass, just one, the dream of dreams, mad love. Maybe later they would find out where all that ended, when their rosiness had fled, when the no-nonsense misery of their lousy country had engulfed them, all sixteen of them, with their hefty mare’s thighs and their bobbing tits … The truth is that misery already had the darlings by the neck, by the waist, they couldn’t escape. By the belly, by the breath, by every cord of their thin, off-key voices.

Misery was inside them. No costume, no spangles, no lights, no smile could fool her, delude her about her own, misery finds her own wherever they may hide; it just amuses her to let them sing silly songs of hope while waiting their turn … Those things awaken misery, caress and arouse her …

That’s what our unhappiness, our terrible unhappiness comes to, an amusement.

So to hell with people who sing love songs! Love itself is misery and nothing else, misery lying out of our mouths, the bitch, and nothing else. She’s everywhere, don’t wake her, not even in pretense. She never pretends. And yet those English girls went through their routine three times a day, with their backdrop and accordion tunes. It was bound to end badly.

I didn’t interfere, but don’t worry, I saw the catastrophe coming.

First one of the girls fell sick. Death to cuties who stir up calamity! Let ’em croak, we’ll all ber better off! And while we’re at it, don’t hang around street corners near accordion players, as often as not that’s where you’ll catch it, where the truth will strike. A Polish girl was hired to take the place of the sick one in their act. The Polish chick coughed too, when she wasn’t doing anything else. She was tall and pale, powerfully built. We made friends right away. In two hours I knew all about her soul, as far as her body was concerned, I had to wait a while. This girl’s mania was mutilating her nervous system with impossible crushes. Naturally, what with her own unhappiness, she slid into the English girls’ lousy song like a knife into butter. Their song began very nicely, like all popular songs it didn’t seem to mean a thing, and then your heart began to droop, it made you so sad that listening to it you lost all desire to live, because it’s true that everything, youth and all that, comes to nothing, and then you start harking to the words, even after the song was over and the tune had gone home to sleep in its own bed, its honest-to-goodness bed, the tomb where everything ends. Two choruses, and you felt a kind of longing for the sweet land of death, the land of everlasting tenderness and immediate foggy forgetfulness. As a matter of fact their voices were foggy too.

All of us in chorus repeated their plaint, reproachful of everybody who was still around, still dragging their living carcasses from place to place, waiting along the riverbanks, on all the riverbanks of the world, for life to finish passing, and in the meantime doing one thing and another, selling things to other ghosts, oranges and racing tips and counterfeit coins … policemen, sex fiends, sorrows, telling each other things in this patient fog that will never end …

Journey to the end of the night
1934
translated into English by Ralph Manheim
1983
New Directions isbn 0-8112-0847-8
New York

Lejwe La Motheo – Mayenzeke

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 12:37 pm

March 7, 2016

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 11:58 am

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March 1, 2016

TETE MBULELO MBAMBISA by Olivier Ledure

Filed under: Jonathan Eato,music — ABRAXAS @ 11:22 am

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February 29, 2016

new sounds from the future

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 12:12 pm

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January 25, 2016

mandla mlangeni

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 4:44 pm

January 20, 2016

JOHNNY MBIZO DYANI live with Don Cherry and Okay Temiz, 1971

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 1:07 am




January 9, 2016

Tete Mbambisa live in York

Filed under: Jonathan Eato,music — ABRAXAS @ 10:38 am

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first published here: http://jazzinyork.com/blog/blog/gig-review-tete-mbambisa-his-big-sa-uk-sound-9th-september-national-centre-for-early-music

January 7, 2016

THE SCORE

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 2:29 pm

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January 5, 2016

Nina Simone – Baltimore

Filed under: music — ABRAXAS @ 10:34 am

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December 27, 2015

JOHN PEFFER on apartheid censorship and the SABC

Filed under: censorship,music — ABRAXAS @ 9:49 pm

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first published here: http://issuu.com/afrikadaamagazine/docs/politics_of_sound?e=4280787/32212638

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